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我国司法实践中的司法规律探究

时间:2017-07-07 来源:88必发老虎机 所属分类: 法学硕士论文 本文字数:8878字

  “司法规律”在 2016 年最高人民法院院长的工作报告中出现,引起司法理论和实务界的关注。回顾我国多年的司法实践可以发现我们的司法工作难以取得长效进展,满足老百姓对于司法公正的需求的一个原因就在于我们的司法实践长期忽视司法规律,特别是误把行政规律应用到司法当中。正是在这样的背景下,本论文希望通过探讨司法规律认识论的相关问题,引起人们对司法规律的关注,深化对司法规律的理解,为当前的司法改革提供理论上的依据,推动司法改革的完成,促进司法公正的实现。
  
  论文首先就具备怎样的条件才能认识司法规律做了阐述。司法规律应该分为两个层次去理解:第一是哲学上的规律,第二是司法过程中的规律。马克思主义哲学认为,规律就是事物之间内在的联系。具有普适性和决定性。不止是自然界有规律,社会生活当中也有规律。社会规律贯穿于社会历史的发展当中。社会规律也一样是客观的。规律的客观性并不意味着人们对它无能为力,人作为社会主体,可以充分发挥自己的主观能动性,通过实践认识、发现和总结规律。司法活动是一种社会实践活动,其中必然蕴含着规律。对于如何认识司法规律,笔者提出两点:司法规律是司法活动的科学依据以及对司法规律的认识和遵循有助于我们避免司法主观主义的倾向。笔者在其中对于司法规律与相关概念做了区分,如司法本质、司法原则、司法理念。司法规律是客观而普遍的,但是实现司法规律的形式却是多样的,两者不应该被混为一谈。
  
  论文第二章提出司法规律的认知可以解释司法发展中的所有问题,因为司法规律反映法律运行的基本内涵。我们现在的司法改革中的所有举措都可以用司法规律进行解释。司法规律有其自身的基本属性。这些属性体现在三方面:首先,司法必须反映国家政体的特点。司法不是空中楼阁,它必然存在于一国的政治制度当中。我国是人民代表大会制度的政体,司法产生并运行在其中,必然会展现出与之相匹配的特性。其次,司法必须伴随社会的发展而变迁。司法是在社会中运行的,它会随着社会政治、经济、文化的变化而发展,最明显的体现就反映在司法制度和司法理念当中。最后,司法必须体现司法权的本质属性。司法权的本质属性就是判断。这就要求法官要居中裁判,不偏不倚。只有做到这一点,司法才能实现其自身的价值。在司法规律的价值体现方面,也有三点:首先,司法必须反映人民主权意旨的最高追求。司法权虽说是一种国家权力,但是归根到底是来源于人民的意志。人民授权司法机关行使对纠纷的判断权。这也是司法权的正当性来源。基于此,司法权就不能成为与人民主权意旨绝缘的垄断性权力。它的价值追求必须是与社会公众的价值追求相一致的。其次,司法运行机制正当才能使得司法权科学运行。长期以来,我国诉讼尤其是刑事诉讼中出现的“侦查中心主义”使得法院审判的地位在侦查起诉审判的诉讼流程中弱化甚至形式化,司法运行机制不当。司法判断权在整个诉讼中占据主导地位才能真正体现司法判断权的本质。侦查权本质上是一种行政权,如果由其主导诉讼,控辩双方就不可能对等,诉讼结构就会失去平衡,公民的正当诉讼权利就被剥夺,甚至人权受到侵害。司法保障人权的功能也被架空。本次改革中,强调以审判为中心,可以有效遏制这一状况。纠正公检法三机关长期的分工制约不足,而配合过度的局面。在司法机制正当运行方面,还应该保障律师的权利。律师在诉讼中的权利落到实处,有合理有效的救济途径才能更好地实现控辩双方的平衡,才能使得诉讼程序公正中立。对于司法机关内部,正确处理好合议庭与审判委员会、院庭长之间的关系也是保障司法权科学运行的重要因素。所谓正确的处理,其实就是去行政化,让属于司法的规律回归到司法活动中去。最后,司法裁判者需要对审判结果负责。只有用制度的手段要求司法者对于自己的裁判负责,才能促使司法者更加谨慎地用权,增加司法者的担当意识,更好地实现司法公正。而要想实现这样的目标,必须制定出配套的一系列制度,真正落实“审理者裁判,裁判者负责”.
  
  论文第三章提出了对司法规律评价的认识论标准。我们对司法规律评价的认识论标准是:司法的发展是否符合合理性、进步性以及科学性的标准。这其中分为一般性的标准和符合中国国情的特殊司法规律。笔者认为,司法一般属性的规律检验标准分为职业性、独立性、中立性、公正性、公开性以及最终裁判性。司法的职业性是法治文明发展的必然产物。这与其自身的复杂性和抽象性也密不可分。作为裁判者的法官,不仅需要掌握系统的法律知识,还需要熟练的专业技能、丰富的社会经历。追求司法的职业性是为了更好地实现司法为民。司法只有与其他权力分立,在一定限度内独立运行,才能保证其结果的公正。司法权是国家权力中比较弱势的权力,因为它本身既无军权又无财权,只是判断。其判断结果的强制执行甚至还需要行政权的帮助。但如果其不能独立运行,受其他权力、势力或者个人的干扰,那么它就失去了自身存在的意义和价值。司法的独立性在现代法治国家均得到承认和遵循。司法是一种保守的活动。它只能针对已经存在并且当事人提交到法院的纠纷进行判断。司法必须是克制的。除了程序启动的被动性外,在裁判过程中,它也必须是中立而对双方当事人没有任何偏见的。当然,传统的司法克制主义思想,使得司法审判程序过分受到法律约束或者判决过于僵化,从而使法官的能动积极性得不到充分发挥。因而也应该要求法官在审判案件时,能够表现出积极主动的主观姿态,对社会公众的司法需求作出积极的回应,实现司法公正,促进社会公平、保障人性尊严。司法所追寻的最终目的价值是公正。为实现司法公正,必须司法公开。司法公开,可以使得司法者不敢滥用职权,可以排除外部势力对司法的干预,更使得当事人和民众可以看见正义被实现的过程。司法是公权力保障下的纠纷解决机制。只有其具备终局性,纠纷才能够被解决,否则,纠纷将陷入无休止的状态,社会必会混乱而不稳定。对于中国特色的司法规律,笔者认为这是司法规律在中国的实现形式。坚持“三个至上”理念是对我国司法意识形态规律的遵循。我国是社会主义国家,一切权力属于人民,这需要在党的领导下实现。而要达到这样的目标,必须坚持依法治国。坚持人大监督的理念是对我国司法权发展的规律性认识。坚持司法服务大局理念是对我国社会发展特性的认识。我国处于并将长期处于社会主义初级阶段,经济的飞速发展使得社会矛盾也变得更加剧烈。司法必须能够实现其社会价值,体现其社会功能才能够真正实现其存在的价值意义。

    论文最后得出结论,一切从实际出发,按客观规律办事,是马克思主义的基本观点。“司法规律”不再是一个单纯的学术概念,它已经成为中央推动司法改革的哲学层面的指导理论了。当前我们的司法改革需要贯彻落实十八届四中全会的法治精神,顺应人民群众对司法公正、权益保障、社会稳定的新期待,积极推进公正司法、实现法治。在司法权运行和司法实践的过程中,掌握司法规律这种特殊的社会认识活动的逻辑结构,可以为司法改革发展趋势提供深层次的理论依据,促进公正司法,树立司法权威,让人民群众在司法个案中体会到公平正义,从而推动社会公正的实现。
  
  [关键词] 司法改革; 司法规律; 司法活动; 科学依据。、
  
  “Judicial law” in 2016 appeared in the work report of the supreme people'scourt justice attracts the attention of the judicial theory and practice. Judicial practicein our country is difficult to obtain long-term development and meet the needs ofordinary people to justice in the long term.One reason of it is that we neglect justicerule, especially applied the administrative law to the justice. This thesis hopes toexplore the judicial rules related questions of epistemology, pay more attention to thejudicial laws, deepen the understanding of the law of justice, providing theoreticalbasis for the current judicial reform, promoting judicial reform, promote therealization of judicial justice.
  
  First of all I write have to meet the conditions of judicial law in this paper.Judicial rules should be divided into two levels to understand: the first is the law ofphilosophy and the second is the law in the judicial process. Marxist philosophybelieves that law is the inherent relationship between things. Not only the nature haslaw,but also the social life has law too. Social law is objective as well. Theobjectivity of the law does not mean that people can do noting with it, people cangive full play to their own subjective initiative, understanding, discovery, andsummarize the rule through practice. Judicial activity is a kind of social practiceactivities, which inevitably contains the rule. For how to realize the judicial rules, theauthor puts forward two points: the judicial law is the scientific basis of the judicialactivity and to understand the judicial law and follow the tendency of help us toavoid the judicial subjectivism. In which the author with the law of justice diddistinguish with the related concepts, such as judicial nature, legal principle, judicialphilosophy. Judicial law is objective and universal, but their judicial rules form isvaried, the two should not be confused.
  
  Paper believes that judicial law can explain all the measures in the judicialreform,because the judicial law reflects the fundamental connotation of legaloperation. The judicial rules reflect its basic attribute. These properties are embodiedin three aspects: first, justice must reflect the characteristics of the body politic.Justice is not a castle in the air, it must exist in a country's political system. Ourcountry is people's congress system of government, judicial produced and run inthem, it should match the feature. Second, the justice must be accompanied by thedevelopment of society and change. Justice is running in the society, it will be as thechange of social politics, economy, culture and development, the most obvious isembodied in the judicial system and judicial philosophy. At last, the jurisdiction mustreflect the essential attribute of judicature. The essence of judicial power attribute isthe judge. This requires judicial centered to the referee, impartial. Only do this, thejustice to realize the value of its own. In terms of the law of justice value, also hasthree points: first, the highest pursuit of justice must reflect the people's sovereigntyintention. Judicial power is a kind of state power, but in the final analysis is derivedfrom the will of the people. The people authorize judicial organs to exercisejudgment of disputes. This is also the legitimacy of judicial power source. Based onthis, judicial power can't be with the people's sovereignty will insulation ofmonopoly power. The value pursuit of it must be consistent with the value pursuit ofthe public. Second, the operation mechanism of judicial jurisdiction as to make thescientific operation. Finally, the judicial judge need to responsible for the result ofthe trial. Only by means of system requirements judicial responsibility for yourreferee, can urge the judicial person more cautiously unavailability, increase thejudicial person acts as a consciousness, a better implementation of justice. Toachieve such a goal, it is necessary to formulate supporting a series of system, trulyimplement the “judge should be responsible for his trial”.Paper in the third chapter puts forward the epistemology of judicial ruleevaluation standard. Evaluation standard of epistemology is: law of the judicialjustice is in line with the development of rationality, progressive and scientificstandards. It is divided into general standard and special judicial rules which accordswith the situation of China. The author thinks that, the general properties of regularinspection standards into occupational, independence, objectivity, impartiality andopenness, and ultimately the referee. The judicial professional with its owncomplexity and abstract are inseparable. As the judge, not only need to master thesystem of legal knowledge, but also need skilled professional skills, rich socialexperience. In addition, in view of the theory about legal professional will legalmonopoly in the hands of a certain group, conflict with judicial democracy ofdiscussion, the author made a negative answer. Judicial professional does notexclude the judicial democracy, on the contrary, the pursuit of justice is professionalin order to better achieve justice for the people. Only with other separation of powers,judicial independence within limits, to guarantee the impartiality of the result.Judicial power is the power of the weak in the state power, because it itself neithersword nor purse strings, just judgment. The judgment result of enforcement evenneed the help of executive power. But if it can't run independently, interference byother power, power, or individual, so it loses its meaning and value of existence. Forsociety, judicial injustice can also lead to serious consequences. Judicialindependence in the modern country under the rule of law are recognized and follow.Justice is the activity of a conservative. It can only be in view of the existingdisputes and the parties submit to the court for judgment. Justice must be restrained.Besides program launched in passivity, in the process of the referee, it must also beneutral to both parties without any prejudice. The ultimate goal of judicial offices topursue value is justice. To achieve judicial justice, to the judicial public. Judicialpublic, can make the judicial person dare not abuse of power, can eliminate externalforces of judicial intervention, more make the parties and people can see the processof justice is implemented. Justice is by public power under the guarantee of thedispute settlement mechanism. Only the finality, the dispute can be solved, otherwise,disputes will fall into a state of constant, society will be chaos and instability. Forjudicial law with Chinese characteristics, the author thinks that this is the order ofthe judicial realization forms in China. Adhere to the “three supreme” is the idea oflaw of our country judicial ideology to follow. China is a socialist country, all powerbelongs to the people, this be achieved under the leadership of the party. And toachieve this goal, we must insist on governing the country according to law. Stick tothe idea of National People's Congress supervision is regular rules of judicial powerdevelopment in our country. Adhere to the judicial service overall concept is theunderstanding of the social development of our country characteristics. Our countryis in and the primary stage of socialism for a long time, the rapid development ofeconomy makes the social contradictions have become more severe. Justice must beable to realize its social value, and demonstrate its social function to realize the valueof its existence meaning.
  
  Paper finally concludes that “law of justice” is no longer a pure academicconcept, it has become central to promote judicial reform the directing theory for thephilosophical level. We need to carry out in our current judicial reform.China isactively promoting justice reform in China. In the process of judicial poweroperation and judicial practice, master the law of judicial logic structure of this kindof special social cognition activities, can provide deep theoretical basis for judicialreform development trend, promote the fair and justice, establish judicial authority,and make the people realize fairness and justice in the judicial cases, so as topromote the realization of social justice.
  
  [Key words] Judicial Reform; Judicial Law; Judicial Act; ScientificBasis

目 录

导 言...................................................................................................1
一、问题的提出..............................................................................................1
二、研究价值及意义......................................................................................2
三、文献综述..................................................................................................3
四、主要研究方法..........................................................................................6
五、论文结构..................................................................................................6
六、论文主要创新及不足..............................................................................9
第一章 司法规律认识的基本条件 ........................................................10
第一节 用马克思主义科学观去认识规律.........................................................10
一、社会规律贯穿在社会历史之中............................................................10
二、从社会发展中去认识、发现和总结规律............................................11
第二节 认识司法规律的目的和作用.................................................................12
一、司法规律是司法活动的科学依据........................................................12
二、司法规律的认知有助于我们避免司法主观主义倾向........................15
第二章 司法规律可以解释司法发展中的所有问题............................17
第一节 司法规律体现法的基本属性.................................................................17
一、司法体制蕴含国家政体特点的规律....................................................17
二、司法伴随社会的发展而变迁的规律....................................................19
三、司法体现司法权本质属性的规律........................................................22
第二节 司法规律反映法的基本内涵.................................................................23
一、司法本质上反映主权者意旨的最高追求............................................24
二、司法过程反映审判运行机制的科学规律............................................25
三、法官责任制是司法规律的题中之义....................................................27
第三章 对司法规律评价的认识论标准 ................................................30
第一节 具有一般属性的规律性判断标准.........................................................30
一、是否体现司法职业化的规律性要求....................................................30
二、是否体现司法独立的规律性要求........................................................31
三、是否体现司法克制的规律性要求........................................................33
四、是否体现司法公正的规律性要求........................................................35
五、是否体现司法公开性的规律性要求....................................................37
六、是否体现司法最终裁判性的规律性要求............................................39
第二节 对中国特色司法规律的认知与坚守.....................................................41
一、“三个至上”理念是对中国特色司法制度的规律性认识................41
二、人大监督是对中国特色司法权发展的规律性认识............................42
三、司法服务顾全大局是对中国特色司法发展道路的认识....................44
四、社会效果与法律效果相统一是对中国司法权属性的认识................46
结 语...................................................................................................49
88必发线上老虎机...................................................................................................50
在读期间发表的学术论文与研究成果 ..................................................58
后 记...................................................................................................59

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