88必发老虎机,88必发线上老虎机,88必发在线老虎机

在线提交 | 加入收藏[ 88必发老虎机-专业的论文学习平台 ]
您当前的位置:88必发老虎机 > 政治论文 > 政治思想史论文

萨托利自由主义民主理论探究

时间:2017-04-11 来源:88必发老虎机 所属分类: 政治思想史论文 本文字数:3635字
    本篇论文目录导航:

【题目】 萨托利自由主义民主理论探究
【引言】萨托利民主思想观念探析引言
【第一章】萨托利对自由主义民主的恢复与重建
【第二章】萨托利“自由主义民主”的另一面
【第三章】对萨托利“自由主义民主”思想的反思
【结论/88必发线上老虎机】萨托利自由主义民主内涵及启示研究结论与88必发线上老虎机
  摘要:自由主义民主理论是西方近代以来最为重要的民主理论之一,吸引着大量的西方学者对其进行深入研究,萨托利是著名的代表人物。自由主义民主自诞生以来就是热门话题,其内容不断被充实,理论体系得到了巨大的发展。但是进入 20世纪特别是二战以后的一段时期,自由主义民主理论遇到了一些危机和挫折,很多人开始怀疑建立在自由主义民主之上的现代资本主义制度是否已经开始没落,甚至对于民主的理解也出现了不同的声音。而这种理论上的危机直接威胁到了西方资本主义政府的政权稳定,西方一些学者们因此试图挽回这种局面。其中,萨托利作为20 世纪西方自由主义民主理论的集大成者,一直致力于恢复与重建自由主义民主理论,并对民主理论的发展做出了重要贡献。
  
  在对自由主义民主理论重建之前,萨托利先对民主的概念进行了彻底的清理。
  
  他分析了对民主理论产生消极影响的各种因素,并提出以三个步骤对民主做出明确的定义。当民主的理论问题被梳理完成后,他进一步研究了自由主义民主在实践中遇到的问题。萨托利认为自由主义民主在实践中最重要的内容就是选举,选举是保障民主最有效的方式,并且在选举的具体问题上,他提出了以“有限多数原则”来保障少数人的权利。总体来看,萨托利对自由主义民主的前景是乐观的,他认为只有维护好自由主义民主,西方的民主体制才能稳固发展。
  
  虽然萨托利民主思想的深度、逻辑的严谨都是有目共睹的,但是他的理论中也存在一些不足和狭隘之处,例如对精英主义的极力推崇。萨托利认为在民主的实践中,普通大众只是选举程序的重要参与者,只要领导者是由民主选举产生,那么民主制度就能得到保障,至于选举后的问题,交给精英们就可以了,在具体决策上,精英们才是应该被托付的。还有萨托利对于马克思主义和社会主义领域的理论的偏见较为明显。由于价值观的不同,萨托利对于马克思理论体系的优点避而不谈,不能客观地分析马克思主义以及社会主义理论体系在人类社会发展中积极的一面,只是在理论的角度对其否定,所以他的思想带有一定的西方中心主义色彩。
  
  美国学者达尔也是自由主义民主思想的重要代表人物,他的理论与萨托利有很多相似之处。但是与萨托利不同,达尔并没有将民主局限于政治领域,他认为经济民主、社会民主等“次要”民主同样不可忽视。而在精英与大众的关系方面,达尔认为大众的力量不能被否定。在处理平等与自由、理想与现实等问题上,与萨托利相比,达尔的思想都离民主精神要更近一步。
  
  虽然萨托利的自由主义民主思想存在一些不足和缺陷,但是他作为当代西方最著名的学者,其思想还是有很多值得我们借鉴的地方。 中国的国情与西方国家有着巨大的差异,虽然中国曾经试图以西方模式来建立现代国家,但是都没有成功。
  
  历史的经验证明西方自由主义民主在中国是行不通的。任何一种民主制度都必须与具体国家的实际情况相适应。我们应该对自己的理论体系和制度充满信心,并在此基础上探索真正适合中国国情的发展道路。
  
  关键词:萨托利 自由主义民主 恢复与重建 有限多数原则
  
  Abstract
  
  Liberal democratic theory is one of the most important western modern democratictheories which attracting a large number of western scholars to conduct in-depth studies.
  
  Sartori is a famous representative. Since the birth of liberal democracy is a hot topic, thecontent of it constantly enriched and the theoretical system has been greatly developed.
  
  But in twentieth Century especially the period after the Second World War, the liberaldemocracy theory has encountered some setbacks and crises. Many people began todoubt whether the modern capitalist system based on liberal democracy has begun todecline, even the understanding of democracy has appeared different voices. Thistheoretical crisis poses a direct threat to the stability of the western capitalistgovernment's regime, some western scholars have therefore tried to reverse the situation.
  
  Among them, Sartori as a master of the 20th century western liberal democratic theory,has been working to restore and the reconstruction of the liberal democratic theory andmake great contribution to the theory's development.
  
  Before the reconstruction of the liberal democratic theory, Sartori has thoroughlycleaned up the concept of democracy. He analyzed the various factors that have anegative impact on the theory of democracy, and put forward three steps to make a cleardefinition of democracy. When the theory problem of democracy has been sorted out, hefurther studied the problems that appeared to the practice of liberal democracy. Sartoribelieves that the election is the most important content of liberal democracy in thepractice and it is also the most effective way to protect democracy. In addition, on thespecific issues of the election, he put forward the “limited majority principle” to protectthe rights of the minority. Overall, Sartori is optimistic about the prospects for liberaldemocracy, and he believes that only by maintaining a good liberal democracy, thewestern democratic system can be firmly developed.
  
  Though the depth and the logic of Sartori's democratic thought is obvious to all,there are some shortcomings and narrow points in his theory, such as he highly praisedfor the elitism. Sartori believes that in the practice of democracy, the general public justan important participant in the electoral process. As long as the leaders are elected by thedemocratic election, the democratic system can be guaranteed and as for the post electionissue, it can be handed over to the elite because the elite should be entrusted in specificdecisions. Besides, Sartori's prejudice against Marxism and socialism is more obvious.
  
  Because of the different values, Sartori avoid talking about advantages of Marx's theorysystem. He can not objectively analyze the positive aspects of Marxism and socialismtheory system in the development of human society but only In the theoretical point ofview of its negation, so his thought has some western centralism.
  
  American scholar Dahl is also an important representative of liberal democraticthought, his theory has many similarities with Sartori. Different from Sartori ,Dahl didnot limit the democracy to the political sphere, he believed that the “secondary”democracy, such as economic democracy, social democracy, can not be ignored. In termsof the relationship between the elite and the public, Dahl considers that the power of themasses can not be denied. Therefore,in dealing with the problems of equality andfreedom, ideal and reality, Dahl's thoughts are more close to the spirit of democracy thanSartori.
  
  Although Sartori's liberal democratic thought has some defects and shortcomings,but as the most famous scholar in the modern western, his thought still has a lot of placesthat we can learn from. There are huge difference national conditions between China'sand the western countries. Although China has tried to establish a modern country in thewestern mode, it is not successful. The experience of history proves that western liberaldemocracy is not feasible in China. Any kind of democratic system must be adapted tothe actual situation of the concrete country. Therefore, We should be full of confidence inour theoretical system and institution, and explore the suitable road of development forChina's national conditions on this basis.
  
  Keywords: Sartori ; Liberal democracy; Restoration and reconstruction ;Limitedmajority principle


  目 录
  
  引 言
  
  (一)研究目的及意义
  
  (二)国内外研究现状
  
  (三)研究方法和内容
  
  一、萨托利对自由主义民主的恢复与重建
  
  (一)民主的前世与今生
  
  (二)自由主义民主理论的诞生和发展
  
  (三)20 世纪自由主义民主理论的危机
  
  (四)萨托利对自由主义民主理论的贡献
  
  二、萨托利“自由主义民主”的另一面
  
  (一)理想与现实
  
  (二)平等与自由
  
  (三)精英与大众
  
  (四)傲慢与偏见
  
  三、对萨托利“自由主义民主”思想的反思
  
  (一)达尔与萨托利
  
  (二)自由主义民主在中国行不通
  
  (三)中国的理论自信、道路自信、制度自信
  
  结论
  
  88必发线上老虎机
  
  致谢
    相近论文:
    • 上海网络警察报警平台
    • 公共信息安全网络监察
    • 经营性网站备案信息
    • 不良信息举报中心
    • 中国文明网传播文明
    • 88必发老虎机_诚信网站
    返回顶部